Promoters of Hate
Major monitoring for the content of the talk shows in the Iraqi TV channels during the second half of 2015.
The Iraqi Media House accomplished its fourteenth Report. This report monitored T.V talk shows in the Iraqi TV channels. These talk shows discussed general political affairs, security file and economic events in Iraq during the period from 1st of July, 2015 until 31th of December, 2015.
The new monitoring report includes nearly 500 episodes of T.V talk shows broadcasted in 15 different local TV channels. These channels broadcast from both inside and outside Iraq.The "Iraqi media house" monitors watched about 23000 minutes of TV time. It witnessed discussions and declarations of 375 guests including politicians, members of the Parliament and the government, academics, experts, journalists, political analysts and security.
The talk shows on Iraqi TV channels monitoring report is the largest report of Iraqi Media House since its start in the early of 2015, Also, it’s the first of its kind at the level of monitoring the Iraqi television broadcasts since 2003.
In the first place, "the Iraqi media house" confirms that the fourteenth report was completed by a very limited number of monitors compared to the rules and requirements of television monitoring. Although the report did not monitor all the Iraqi TV channels, but it monitored 17 TV channels. This diversity ensures political and cultural variety, intellectual trends, and different media schools.
First: TV Explanations
-Television is the most important media and the most influential in the modern era.
-TV is characterized by the tremendous evolution in sound, image, color, movement, effects of all kinds, quality of the screens, sizes, capabilities, interactive technologies, and high-definition technologies.
-TV is characterized by the global spread where TV channel can reach all the continents of the world through six satellites only.
-TV available is always accessible, consistently and continuously to all viewers.
-Drama, such like series, movies and plays.
-Covering religious, social, political or sports events.
-TV shows, regardless of its different types themes.
A diverse content is often in the nonspecialized TV. Channels. Specialized channels, on the other hand are usually limited to one type of content.
Television Programs Classification
Television programs are classified according to different criteria, as follows:
-Function or objective: media, entertainment, education or advertising.
-Content: religious, political, economic, cultural, sport, Arts or scientific.
-Audience: common people, children, youths, women, specialized group ... etc.
-Broadcast programming: daily, weekly, monthly or semi-monthly.
-Broadcast time: morning programs, afternoon programs, evening programs and night programs .
-Language: modern standard Arabic (Fusha), colloquial Arabic, foreign language or translated foreign language.
-Outline or technical form: talk, dialogue, investigation or journal.
Is an idea or a set of ideas formulated in a particular TV template using images and sounds with all their technical details, in order to reach a specific goal.
TV shows Templates
-Direct talk template.
-Dialog and interview template.
-Round Table Template (discussion).
-Audience guests template.
-The film and presenter template.
-Assortment of television shows template.
-He special and Features program template.
-Magazine’s show template.
Is the easiest type of programs. It is limited to one speaker who talks either to the audience in front of the screen, or to the audience inside the studio.
It depends entirely on the personality of the speaker.
The characteristics of a successful presenter are:
-Having an accepted appearance and an affable voice.
-The ability to present the topic simply and clearly.
-Ability to always attract attention.
-Not to affect, and to stay away from artificiality.
Interview and dialogue
Is a program that displays a conversation between two peoples? This program has a certain goal.
Dialogue is classified into three sections depending on its goal:
-Information dialogue: aims to obtain certain information from the guest. This information is about issue or event, and the guest is the source of this information.
-Opinion dialogue: aims to find out the guest opinion in the case, or the views of ordinary people in a particular thing.
-Personal dialogue: aims to familiarize viewers aspects to the personal of the guest, whether this guest is famous or non-famous.
Second: The Conditions of Completing theMonitoring Report
The Iraqi Media house's monitors focus serious difficulties due to the Iraqi channels' poor documentation of their own programs on their YouTube channel and their websites. The Iraqi Media House’s monitors write many notes:
They didn’t download some episodes on their website.
-ad sounds or images of the videos on their website.
-Some episodes on the website didn’t completed.
-The episodes without dates.
Third: The Monitoring Report Channels
Aletejah, Afaq, Alghadeer, Alrafidain, Alforat, Altaghier, Dijla, Alsumaria, Albaghdadia, Al iraqia, Alrasheed, Alsharqiya, Hona Baghdad, Alahad, alfayhaa
Fourth: Targeted Programs
-Afaq: The Dividing Line.
-Alghadeer: A Special Area.
-Alahad: Wjeeh Words.
-Alrasheed: The Last Hour.
-Al iraqia: Al iraqia and the Event, After the Ninth, Under Two Lines, Terrorism Industry.
-Hona Baghdad: Without Reservation.
-Alsumaria: Disclosed Secrets.
-Alsharqiya: The Conclusion.
-Albaghdadia: Iraqi dialogue.
-lfayhaa: The Supplement.
-Dijla: Frankly with Adnan.
-Aletejah: The Pillar.
-Alrafidain: The Evening Dialogue.
-Altaghier: The Iraqi Street.
-Alforat: With the Event.
Fifth: Monitoring Categories
Iraqi Media House covers The various media trends in the Iraqi live broadcasting in its monitoring report as the following:
-Privately funded channels (companies, figures).
-Channels funded by political money (parties, movements, figures).
-Channels that, to varying degrees, speak on behalf of religious and ethnic groups and sects.
In its report on observing talk shows, the Iraqi media house has adopted the following set of standards:
-With respect to the presenter's performance concerning: clarity to ask questions, commitment to standards of impartiality, time allocation among the guests, granted enough freedom to get the answer.
-Hosting guests, concerning: presenting information supported by proofs, using any kind of hate speech, or trying to poison the public opinion by cheating or confusion.
Seventh: Pivots of Media Coverage
TV talk shows that have been monitored covered various Iraqi files, then the Iraqi Media House has reached the following conclusions:
-The programs offered similar facts despite that the channels are different, where 7 channels out of 15 broadcasted episodes about the liberation of Tikrit within one week, and 11 channels broadcasted episodes about the liberation of Mosul within two weeks.
-Four channels broadcasted 3 consecutive episodes on a single file, such as "Popular Crowd, the war against ISIS, Mosul edition”
-"The budget, the Popular Crowd, ISIS, Mosul edition, Anbar edition" won the majority of broadcast’s hours during the monitoring period.
-Diversity: the Iraqi Media House in its fourteenth monitoring report monitored TV channels’ commitment to view various political and security opinions regarding the coverage of an event through dialogue. The results of this report are:
About 90% of channels guests belong to the same sect or closely related to the same sect which the channel represents.
About 85% of the guests of these channels are either sponsored by Political forces they represent in the Parliament, members of sponsoring parties, or political analysts from their entourage.
Iraqi Media House monitors found out that 10% of the guests were writers, journalists, and academics.
Iraqi Media House monitors found out that 90% of the guests were politicians and political analysts.
The members of the Government were hosted in the talk shows on an average of 30%, while the members of the House of Representatives were hosted on an average of 70%.
The proportion of men appearance in talk shows is about 94%, while women appearance was equivalent to 6%. Note that this 6% women appearance proportion featured the repeated appearance of the same women figures over the entire monitoring period.
The three presidencies presidents appeared in the talk shows surveyed by the monitoring report on an average of 2%.
During the talk shows coverage in the first half of 2015, Iraqi media House monitors noticed various levels of media discourse:
Use of insults and defamation phrases openly.
Giving information without evidence, and solely on the guest's opinion.
Resorting to yelling and verbal clashes that result in presenter loss of ability to control the dialogue.
Laying definite accusations of "terrorism, collaboration with the enemy, and treason" that adopt generalization against certain religious and social groups.
Defamation without evidence.
Presenters camouflaging guests' statements.
Investment of the political and security files such as "ISIS, the Popular Crowd, the Iraqi army and the oil conflict" to bring down the political forces.
The overuse of hypotheses and marketing them to the audience as if they were ultimate truths.
The Iraqi Media House’s monitors noticed that the time of some talk shows was not managed properly, and the time was often over before completing the discussion.
Some presenters failed to formulate direct questions within a specific time.
Some presenters are raised hypothetical questions.
Some programs lost control over the main topic under discussion due to guests digressing into unrelated answers.
Some talk shows did not distribute the time evenly among the guests.
Some talk shows hosted just one guest to talk about a political or security issue that has to do with different parties.
The Iraqi Media House’s monitors wrote the verbatim transcripts for everything that the guests and presenters said it during monitoring report period (see the monitoring file). They extracted the following:
The guests uses phrases like: “Fake men, traitors, thieves, murderers, Collaborator with (….),barking voices, negative voices(DOGS)”.
Containing accusations like: “Leaking information to Kuwait, Strong relationship with Israel, the Safavids, the Safavids government, ISIS Politicians, Clients for countries that supporting terrorism, Wahhabism”.
The guests used accusations like: “There are MPs and ministers doing terrorist acts, MassoudBarzani sold Mosul, Al Maliki destroyed Al Anbar,Hadi al-Amiri is an Iranian and American production, Persian community in the Green Zone and Al Sunna is ISIS”.
Using terms like: “the sectarian crowd, Al-Saud and Erdogan responsible for killing Iraqis”.
Incitement against journalists where one of the politiciansfomented to leave CNN. He said that CNN is the other face of ISIS.
-The form and content of the dialogue
The Iraqi Media House’s monitors noted that the talk shows depend on what social media websites publish, including the re-posting of documents, images and videos without checking their validity. Such posts are presented to the public by the presenter or his/her guests
Presenters and their guests quoted phrases and ideas that are common in the social media such as the "Save one Fridgehashtag. This hashtag refers to the theft events that took place in Tikrit after its liberation.
Most of talk shows depended more on hosting the guests on SNG devices than inviting them to the studio of the channel. Sometimes the channels conducted their Interviews by phone.
Satellite channels neglected the design and appearance techniques, including the development of the studio's decor and its colors.
This table shows the percentages of the appearance of all guests during all episodes included in the observation.
Tenth: The observation
PDF of the full text of the observation is attached.